Most Popular Programming Languages & Frameworks List for 2023
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Today, almost any online and offline business is in dire need of technological transformation. While the software development industry is incrementally growing, it’s critical to stay up-to-date with those changes and be aware of the top coding languages in 2023 and the latest development trends.
You may ask why you need that. Because ignoring these new coding languages or technologies makes your product or business outdated on the market and not competitive at all. Meanwhile, applying the best programming languages to your product development allows you to:
- Create the most reliable and efficient software for your customers or enterprise
- Reduce the time-to-market of your product
- Eliminate the number of bugs and efforts to fix them
- Get a competitive advantage for business as your product will be more qualitative while developed more quickly
However, technologies, software tools, and all web development languages change, update, or improve over time. The only rule here is to keep up with this trail to ensure you get all the freshest and most effective ones.
With a solid portfolio and proven expertise in providing software development services, Softermii would like to share with you the latest information on the following:
- Technologies, the latest programming languages, and their frameworks that are relevant today
- Languages best for you to code on both native Android and iOS platforms
- Languages best for cross-platform development
So take a break and enjoy!
List of Top Programming Languages for 2023
The next question is based on the reasons one or another programming language can be considered the best to use when another is not.
In a nutshell, the top coding language is the one that allows developers to write easy-to-read and streamlined code, reduce the bugs numbers and handle complex functions with less code.
As Stack Overflow’s 2022 developer survey shows, the programming languages ranking from the point of view of professional programmers are almost the same.
It means that the technologies from this list are wanted and will be applied by engineers in their future work.
Thus, with proven software experience and recent research data, we have compiled the best programming languages and frameworks to use at different stages of the software development process and for different purposes in 2023. So as it’s always good to have a finger on the pulse of the industry, let’s dig deeper into our list of most popular programming languages and frameworks.
Please note that ranking the most popular software development languages changes yearly, but the same coding languages almost always remain at the top.
Read also: Video Streaming App Development
List of the Latest Programming Technologies
Now you know which coding languages are currently trending. But what about the new programming languages that are gaining traction?
Let’s look at some emerging programming languages worth your attention in 2023.
- Crystal. It is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that appeared in 2014. It has a similar syntax to Ruby and is static, making it easy to catch bugs early in development.
- Elixir. It is a functional programming language with strong dynamic typing that appeared in 2012. It makes it possible to develop highly scalable and reliable systems.
- Go. It is another C-style programming language created by Google in 2009. It is more sophisticated than Java and C++ and safer than Python and Ruby.
- Clojure. It is a general-purpose programming language that appeared in 2007. It’s a dialect of the Lisp language and is suitable for supporting multiple simultaneous computations.
These are just a few modern programming languages that are currently gathering steam. Keep reading to learn more about other technologies viable for your software project.
Different Types of Coding Languages
Soon we’ll jump to the list of computer languages for front-end, back-end, Android, iOS, and cross-platform development. Before that, however, let’s have a look at the types of programming languages.
Here are the two categories:
High-Level Coding Languages
High-level coding languages are programming languages that allow engineers to write code regardless of the type of computer they use. Major examples include Python, Java, and C++.
Low-Level Coding Languages
Low-level coding languages are programming languages that provide little or no abstraction from hardware, i.e., computers. Examples of such languages are assembly and machine code.
Front-end Programming Languages List for 2023
Both junior and senior web developers should learn the specifics of each programming language they use to develop robust web solutions. To help you achieve this goal and enrich your skills, we've prepared a short report on the best front-end programming languages for 2023.
Probably any web tech stack list would not be complete without Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). These two are listed in the top 5 most wanted web development languages for 2023, a sure sign of their market penetration and popularity worldwide.
One of the use cases of HTML5 you are using today is Google Docs or Google Drive. The adoption of HTML5 is due to the offer of reasonably robust cross-platform support. The biggest advantage refers to making your files lightweight, it consists of easy and clean coding, and it’s completely free, no small matter if you are operating with a limited budget.
More use cases of WebAssembly include visualizing data in real-time, doing real-time simulations, editing and annotating PDFs, etc. Moreover, Google Earth is running in any browser now with its help.
The Most Popular Web Framework For Front-End In 2023
If you’re curious as to what the most popular list of frameworks in programming for front-end design is going to be in 2023, you need to look no further than what it was in 2021. React.js, Vue.js, and Express were used more than any others. Angular also makes it to the list, though it has not gained widespread usage quite as these others have.
According to an engineering survey, React.js, Vue.js, and Angular frameworks are those that they are most inclined to use going forward. These seem to have significant advantages over other options in terms of features and practicality, so this response is hardly surprising.
Read Also: SvelteJS for web development
Here is a quick recap of the most popular programming frameworks to use in your web application in the next few years:
Node.js and .Net
Node.js and .Net are in the top ten list of other frameworks developers like to use on the front-end side of things. It’s not hard to see why.
Some famous use cases of Node.js include the online learning platform Coursera and the UI/UX design tool Figma.
.Net is free, cross-platform, and allows the building of different types of applications. Meanwhile, it has one consistent API common to all .NET implementations. There is a large and thriving community that you can turn to for support. It is also host-agnostic and lightweight. The typical use cases are web, mobile, desktop, games, and IoT.
Angular is one of the popular web frameworks for front-end development. It allows the building of highly scalable and high-performing web applications. It is specially designed to simplify creating user interfaces and overcome the restrictions of other existing technologies. Angular is best suited for most enterprise and dynamic web applications.
Besides, if you want to get more data on this, you can use our previous insights on the most relevant web development languages and frameworks for upcoming years and find out more details.
You may also find interesting our experience in video chat app development.
Backend Programming Languages List for 2023
After we’ve discussed the top list of front-end programming languages and frameworks, it's time to put all these aspects together by adding the last ingredient so that your web solution is fully built. Let's look at the list of backend programming languages for 2023.
According to the Stackoverflow survey, Python is the 2nd most loved language by developers. It is also the one that is growing the fastest. Such wide popularity is due to this programming language being quite easy to learn and use. It can integrate with other popular programming languages for web development like C and C++.
It’s a universal coding language with pretty readable code. In Python, developers can handle asynchronous coding, which means alternate processing cycles. Also, this lang supports most from the list of programming libraries, both open-source and object-oriented.
Brands like Instagram and SurveyMonkey often use it. At the same time, Google, Netflix, and Quora can’t do without it. Also, such applications as Dropbox, Calibre, YouTube, Instagram, Reddit, BitTorrent, OpenStack, Quora, Spotify are written using it. The applications are artificial intelligence, financial services, and data science. Due to these advantages, Python has been dominating the market and has become very appreciated by developers.
Java has just as much backend potential as it does front-end when you're thinking about all coding languages. It is useful for the creation of all kinds of Android applications. It also has a special value in developing cross-platform applications. Java is widely-used to develop android apps, server apps, web apps, embedded space, big data technology, scientific apps, websites, and games.
It is object-oriented programming that is highly readable and easily manageable. It does not require a specific hardware infrastructure, and the security you get with it is top-notch. With automatic memory management, you get the stability that is hard to beat. It is a high-level programming language with unmatched features.
The most popular applications are NASA WorldWind, Blu-Ray Disc Association, Ultra Mixer, and Android Operating System.
Although not as popular as it once was, PHP is still on the list of top 20 computer languages for backend development for the last few years. With WordPress websites, about 90% of the code is written. There is a huge, active community that uses PHP. It is a server-side scripting open-source language used for server-side scripting, command-line scripting, and coding applications.
PHP is used to create dynamic websites. However, developers can also use PHP to develop Android and iOS apps. It could be considered one of the better object-oriented programming languages.
To sum up, these three coding languages are on the top for software development among engineers and businesses.
By the way, since we mentioned scripting, here is a scripting languages list that we consider the best in our opinion:
Read our guide on telemedicine app development.
Best Programming Languages for Android
Mobile operating systems also have their favorites. There is an ongoing discussion about which is better for Android apps, Kotlin or Java. Let’s look at each of them.
Kotlin ranks as number four among the best-loved assembly language programming options for Android. More developers are turning to it these days, which should continue into the new 2023 year.
Kotlin is a new object-oriented first-class programming language ranking with multiple advanced features. Kotlin is unique to support almost all the IDEs, including Android Studio and SDK toolkit. Due to its quite concise and perceptive syntax, it is easy to learn, and fewer bugs can be found in the code.
Read also: Most Popular IDEs For Software Development
With Kotlin, efficiency is the name of the game. It’s easy to learn, so both experienced programmers and amateurs love it, but it is also quite effective in coding your applications.
Java for Android app development is a basic programming language that many users embrace. It is a major presence with programmers of all experience levels. Android consists of APIs and Java libraries. Because of this, the two are a natural fit for each other.
Android APIs and Java coding look and feel the same, like extensions of the same thematic elements. As we mentioned earlier, Java can be used fairly easily to develop Android apps and is of little use when developing iOS apps.
Best Programming Languages for iOS
You are probably thinking about which programming languages will remain at the top when creating apps for iOS. Well, let's highlight the best two and find out the reasons.
That is the 6th most loved functional language in the Stack Overflow report. Almost 70% of responders say that they love using it. Swift was specially made to suit the requirements of the modern iOS development process. Swift was launched for iOS, its supporting systems, and Linux. Swift handily won this year’s battle with Objective-C.
Besides being currently available for IOS development, it also works on Linux and is open source. The application area is huge and includes everything that functions on IOS: iPhones, iPads, watchOS, and tvOS.
The main reason that Swift is so popular is that it provides critical safeguards that improve readability and reduce errors as you move along. It’s built with performance in mind, and it is extremely fast. It is more than eight times faster than Python. Using Swift and the other special iOS development features, you can create a pretty reliable and trending mobile application.
Objective-C was the primary programming language to develop iOS apps for years. Nowadays, it hasn't lost its popularity and is still used today for building IOS apps. Objective-C is a very mature and easily-updated programming language compatible with C and C++ libraries.
However, Objective C is quite hard to learn. It is unavailable as open-source. Security is the second issue why developers prefer Swift more. Still, companies like Uber, Pinterest, Slack, and Instagram have worked with Objective C for many years. This language allows messages to be passed between objects, useful for IOS operating systems.
Best Cross-Platform Programming Languages
Finally, we can look at programming languages suitable for running on multiple platforms. Read below about the languages to create cross-platform software.
Rust is a system programming language known to be safe, concurrent, and practical. It is open-source and memory safe, which means that it does not permit null pointers, dangling pointers, or data races. Its concrete syntax is similar to C and C++.
It is elegant and user-friendly to those with less experience. It is also useful in web and operating system contexts. The only disadvantage is hard and confusing installation on windows.
If you are going by contributor count, one of GitHub’s most popular open-source projects is Flutter. It is a cross-platform framework for building apps introduced into the marketplace by Google. In the two years since it originally debuted, Flutter has expanded support to several platforms. These include Linux, iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows.
The Dart programming language is used to write Flutter apps. Google Dart enjoyed a spike in GitHub usage in 2019. If you’re doing anything cross-platform nowadays, Dart might be worth your time to consider.
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Any list of programming languages and frameworks is probably going to include Ruby. The most significant reason behind its popularity is its full-stack framework, Ruby on Rails.
Ruby is an object-oriented, dynamic, interpreted, reflective, general-purpose programming language. It’s a dynamic language simplifying your programming work and offering a standard structure for web and mobile apps. Despite this, it seems to be decreasing in popularity at the moment due to a low run-time speed.
Clojure is growing popular as a hosted language. It shares the JVM type system, GC, threads, etc. All of its functions are compiled to JVM bytecode. It could be the easiest programming language based on its ease of use with Java.
Clojure is a great Java library consumer, as it offers dot-target-member notation for calls to Java. Clojure supports the dynamic implementation of Java classes and interfaces.
More programmers are also becoming comfortable with Elixir for assembly programming. It is a dynamic, functional language designed for building scalable, maintainable apps.
Elixir leverages the Erlang VM, which runs low-latency, distributed, fault-tolerant systems. It is also being used successfully in web development and the embedded software domain.
Go Lang is supported by Google. Since Google is probably the most trusted tech company, you will not face any stability issues if you have decided to use it.
Moreover, Go is considered one of the most useful programming languages for DevOps management. It stands out with high performance, scalability, efficiency, and modularity, i.e., things highly important for development operations.
C and C++ are some of the fastest and most powerful languages. It is often used for game development, and it is one of the most used programming languages in 2023 and overall.
With C/C++, memory management is simple and easy. That’s why lots of popular software and games are built with it. The majority of the operating systems are built using it as well. Because of this, if you understand and can master C/C++, you will come to know much about operating systems and the fundamentals of how they work. By the way, if we talk about a direct comparison of C and C++, then C++ is the faster programming language.
The R coding language has been gaining popularity in recent years. That is because of interest growth in data analysis from several sectors. It provides a wide array of packages, and it is entirely open source. You might wish to learn R programming because of its cross-platform compatibility alone. The leading coding language to learn is great on several platforms, so R is definitely worth your consideration.
Softermii has extensive expertise in the software market. Our specialists are well-versed in numerous types of programming languages and frameworks. In particular, we skillfully leverage the following technologies:
- React JS, Redux, GraphQL, Storybook, and Typescript for front-end development
- ASP.NET Core, EF Core, NodeJS, ExpressJS, NetJS, GraphQL, Typescript, Sequelize, and TypeORM for backend development
- Kotlin, Java, RxJava, JUnit, and Espresso for Android development
- Swift, RxSwift, RxCocoa, Alamofire, and Moya for iOS development
- ReactNative, Redux, React Navigations, and RxJs for cross-platform development
Using these cutting-edge tech stacks and even more, we deliver top-notch projects in various industries that succeed in the competitive software market. Here are some of them:
Expedipay is a mobile banking app that features secure P2P transfers, eWallet, live chat, and eKYC. Our team used .NET Core, Kafka, AWS, PostgreSQL, React/React Native, and MongoDB to deliver this application.
Soundit is a decentralized mobile app that prioritizes audio content. It features audio creation, live streaming, live chat, a news feed, and advanced algorithms for user promotion. We leveraged TypeScript, CassandraDB, MySQL, Redis, Objective-C, Swift, and Agora to create this application.
PractiCall is a web and mobile application for video conferencing. It features audio and video conferencing, live chat, breakout rooms, screen sharing, and web admin. Our team needed ASP.NET, C#, GraphQL, Node.js, Typescript, PostgreSQL, Swift, Kotlin, React.js, and Mediasoup to deliver this app.
You can find more worthy projects in our portfolio where we have used the latest programming languages, frameworks, and technologies.
At this point, you know the top programming languages and frameworks in 2023 that have made an impact in 2023 and should continue to do so in 2023. Depending on programming language knowledge, you can even move ahead and get to know the developer’s average salary and cost to hire a backend developer.
If you still need clarification about what tech stack will work best for your solution, use our free quote on your project estimation. With extensive software development expertise for different industries, our business analytics team finds the relevant tech match for your product.
Whether you develop your product in-house or outsource it, always keep an eye on the promising technologies in development to ensure you will build a truly competitive product. Have any questions left? Contact our dedicated team.
Frequently Asked Questions
The most popular coding languages for backend development are Python, Java, and PHP. Professional developers prefer them because of their high scalability and clarity.
Judging by the Github trend repositories and the leading cross-platform framework, Flutter, it's no surprise that Dart is the most promising language for 2023.
React.js, Vue.js, Express, Angular, Node.js, and .Net are the best frameworks for software development in 2023.
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