Top Programming Languages and Frameworks List For Software Development for 2021

11 January 2020 • 12 min read
Top Programming Languages and Frameworks List For Software Development for 2021
Andrii Horiachko
Written by Andrii Horiachko
Co-Founder and CTO at Softermii

Today almost any business online and offline both need software for customers or their own employees either. While the software development industry is one of the most incrementally growing it’s critical to stay up-to-date with those changes and be aware of the most popular programming languages in 2021 and the latest development trends.

You ask why you need that. Because not applying these new coding languages or technologies, you make your product or business outdated on the market and not competitive at all. Contrary applying the best programming languages into your product development allows you:

  • to create the most reliable and efficient software for your customers or enterprise
  • to reduce the time-to-market of your product
  • to eliminate the numbers of bugs and efforts on fixing them
  • to get a competitive advantage for business as your product will be more qualitative while developed more quickly.

Just to show you the overall number of the most popular programming languages and how often they have been changing for the time since they first appeared, we found out this summarising video based on GitHub repositories data for this timeline.

Well, now you know how many types of programming languages exist and why it makes sense to use only the most compelling of them, so let’s move to the technologies that work today.


Top Programming Languages For 2021: Overview

The next question arising is based on what reasons one or another programming language can be considered as the best to use when another one not.

In a nutshell, the top coding language can be defined as the one that allows developers to write easy-to-read and streamlined code, reduce the bugs numbers and handle complex functions with less code.

Of course, mainly, only developers are the persons who can distinguish what programming language can be considered as top and whatnot.

Therefore, under the developers' survey of the StackOverFlow, the most loved programming languages have changed a little bit for the last year.

top programming languages for 2020

That means the technologies from this list engineers want and are going to apply in their work furthermore.

Hence, after review this and other data we distinguish the top programming languages and frameworks to use at the different stages of the software development process and for different purposes. So as it’s always good to have a finger on the pulse of the industry, let’s dig deeper into our list.

Find our guide on video streaming app development.


A list of Leading Front-End Programming Languages For 2021 


the best web development languages for frontend development

Probably any web tech stack list would not be complete without HTML/CSS. These two are listed in the top 15 most wanted web development languages for 2021, a sure sign of their market penetration. HTML 5 is particularly well regarded. It allows you to organize all your page content in a highly intuitive manner. It is supported by any browser and optimizes the appearance of your pages for any device. In addition, it makes your files lightweight, and it’s completely free, no small matter if you are operating with a limited budget.


JavaScript is currently the 11th most popular programming language for developers. It is the front-end programming language most widely used in the world when it comes to developing web applications like Single Page Application or SPA.

It allows you to create a multitude of animations and set up whatever buttons your program requires. You can easily manage multimedia with it and combine it with other languages. Types of computer programming languages like JavaScript seem to be nearly timeless.


This is a great computer programming language for beginners. WebAssembly’s popularity is rapidly growing when it comes to web application development. Programs made using it can go where JavaScript cannot, especially as it relates to media editions, image recognition, transcoding, and VR. You can use it to develop high-end games, emulation, or desktop-tier applications as well.

WebAssembly should not be thought of as a replacement for JavaScript. Instead, you should regard it as a compliment to it. Some JavaScript code is required to load WebAssembly modules. This language runs in all major browsers and on all platforms. Developers can reasonably assume WebAssembly support will be found anywhere that JavaScript is available.


The Most Popular Web Framework for Front-End in 2021

If you’re curious as to what the most popular web framework for front-end design is going to be in 2021, you need to look no further than what it was in 2020. React.js, Vue.js, and Express were the three that were used more than any others. Angular makes the list as well, though it has not gained widespread usage quite as these others have.

According to engineers survey, React.js, Vue.js, and Angular frameworks are those that they are most inclined to use going forward. All of these seem to have significant advantages over other options in terms of features and practicality, so this response is hardly surprising.

Node.js and .Net

Node.js and .Net are both in the top ten list of other frameworks that developers like to use on the front-end side of things. It’s not hard to see why. Node.js is event-driven and asynchronous. It is extremely fast, and while it is single-threaded, it is highly scalable. .Net, meanwhile has a simple and reliable caching system, and there is a large and thriving community that you can turn to for support.


As the usage of JavaScript grows even by the larger corporations, the process of simplifying code writing and maintenance has become more difficult. For the reason of extending the capabilities of JS the Microsoft has developed Typescript. Software built with Typescript can be compiled into JavaScript, which makes it a valuable addition to the marketplace.

Here is a quick recap of the top front end development frameworks to use in your web application in the next few years:

leading frameworks for frontend development

Besides, if you want to get more data on this, you can use our previous insights on the most relevant web development technologies for upcoming years and find out more details.

You may also find interesting our experience in video chat app development.


Top In-Demand Back-End Programming Languages


According to the Stackoverflow survey, Python is the 2nd most loved language by developers. It is also the one that is growing the fastest. It is one of the top programming languages no matter what criteria you choose to use.

It’s a universal coding language with a pretty readable code. On Python, developers can handle the asynchronous coding, which means that you can alternate the execution of processing cycles. Also, this lang supports most libraries besides is open-source and object-oriented.

Moreover, using Python syntax features, programmers can execute fewer actions to create a plugin with it than in Java or C ++. Brands like Instagram and SurveyMonkey often use it, while Google, Netflix, and Quora can’t do without it. Due to these advantages, Python has dominated the market over the past couple of years and becomes very appreciated by developers.


Java has just as much backend potential as it does frontend when you’re thinking about coding languages. 53.4% of all responders list it as the top language for back-end usage. It is useful for the creation of all kinds of applications.

It is object-oriented programming that is highly readable and easily manageable. It does not require a specific hardware infrastructure, and the security you get with it is top-notch. Along with automatic memory management, you get the stability that is hard to beat. It is a high-level programming language with features that are unmatched.


Although not as popular as it once was, PHP is still on the list of the top 20 computer languages for back-end development for the last few years. With WordPress websites, about 90% of the code is written with it. There is a huge, active community that uses PHP.

Probably what’s best about it, though, is the high-grade debugging feature that you get with it. This aspect alone seems to guarantee that PHP will not go extinct in 2020 and beyond. It could be considered one of the better object-oriented programming languages.

To sum up, these three coding languages are on the top for software development among engineers and businesses.

best back end programming languages

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Web Development Environments

Web development environment trends are something that you should be aware of as well as you work to remain competitive in your field. The ones of which you should be most aware are Visual Studio Code, Visual Studio, and Notepad +++.

With Visual Studio Code, you get an environment that’s customizable with themes and extensions. There is also an integrated terminal that can handle multiple instances. With Visual Studio, there is a useful search feature that you can use while you are debugging. You get excellent refactoring, and there’s a one-click code cleanup that should save you a great deal of time. Notepad +++ is a popular option because you get auto-save as you use it, as well as macros and multiple views. It might be a good choice of programming language for you if you’re just getting started as a coder.


Android Mobile Development Trends 

leading programming languages for android


This ranks as number four among the best-loved assembly language programming options for Android. More developers are turning to it these days, and that should continue into the new year. With Kotlin, efficiency is the name of the game. It’s easy to learn, so both experienced programmers and amateurs love it, but it is also quite effective in the way it codes your applications. It might be the most promising programming language to learn as we enter a new decade.


Java for Android app development is a basic programming language that many users embrace. It is a major presence with programmers of all experience levels. Android consists of APIs and Java libraries. Because of this, the two are a natural fit for each other.

Android APIs and Java coding look and feel the same, so they are like extensions of the same thematic elements. When you think about functional programming, JavaScript is probably going to be one of the first names that come to mind.


Mobile Development Trends for iOS

swift programming language for ios


This is the 6th most loved functional language in the Stackoverflow report. Almost 70% of responders say that they love using it. Swift handily won this year’s battle with Objective-C. In fact, Objective-C came in at the opposite end of the list, as developers consider as the most dreaded languages e.g. they have no interest in continuing to use it.

The main reason that Swift is so popular is that it provides critical safeguards that improve readability and reduce errors as you move along. It’s built with performance in mind, and it is extremely fast. It is actually more than eight times faster than Python. Using Swift along with the other special features for iOS development, you can create a pretty reliable and trending mobile application.


Mobile Development Environments

As for mobile development, the most popular environments are Android Studio, Visual Code, and XCode.

Android Studio is well regarded because it comes with a fast emulator and an intelligence code editor. There is also a visual layout editor that lets you develop the most popular themes for your software. With Visual Code, you get split views and Zen mode, as well as many different plugins and themes. You also have Git integration that many programmers find useful. XCode is helpful, particularly with game development. There are also TestFlight and UI testing features.

Read our guide on doctor appointment booking app development.


The Best Programming Languages for Cross-Platform Development & Data Science


Rust is described as the most loved and one of the fastest-growing languages on GitHub, according to this year’s report. It is open-source and memory safe, which means that it does not permit null pointers, dangling pointers, or data races. Its concrete syntax is similar to C and C++.

It is elegant and user-friendly to those with less experience. It is also useful in Web and operating system contexts. Some think of it as a low-level programming language, but they probably haven’t explored it thoroughly enough to make a fair assessment.


One of GitHub’s most popular open-source projects, if you are going by contributor count, is Flutter. It is a cross-platform framework for building apps that were introduced into the marketplace by Google. In the two years since it originally debuted, Flutter has expanded support to several platforms. Those include Linux, iOS, Android, Mac, and Windows.

The Dart programming language is used to write Flutter apps. Google Dart has enjoyed a spike in GitHub usage in 2019. If you’re doing anything cross-platform in 2020, Dart may be worth your time to consider.


Any list of highly functional programming languages is probably going to include Ruby. The most significant reason behind its popularity is its full-stack framework, Ruby on Rails. It’s a dynamic language that simplifies all of your programming work. Despite this, it seems to be decreasing in popularity at the moment. Perhaps later iterations will bring it back into prominence.


TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript. That means some developers don’t regard it as a “full” programming language. However, it is rapidly gaining prominence among coders.

TypeScript is beginning to forge inroads into JavaScript’s market share. It is well worth paying attention to in 2020, even if you don’t buy the assessment that it is the new and improved JavaScript.


Clojure is growing popular as a hosted language. It shares the JVM type system, GC, threads, etc. All of its functions are compiled to JVM bytecode. It could be the easiest programming language based on its ease of use with Java.

Clojure is a great Java library consumer, as it offers dot-target-member notation for calls to Java. Clojure supports the dynamic implementation of Java classes and interfaces.


More programmers are also becoming comfortable with Elixir for assembly programming. It is thought of as a dynamic, functional language designed for building scalable, maintainable apps.

Elixir leverages the Erlang VM, which is known for running low-latency, distributed, fault-tolerant systems. It is also being used successfully in web development and the embedded software domain.

Go Lang

Go Lang is one of the most modern computer programming languages. It is well-known for its performance and efficiency, and it shares some similarities with C/C++. The syntax of the Go Lang programming language is quite easy to master. Some feel that it is even more intuitive than Python and JavaScript.

Go Lang is supported by Google. Since Google is probably the most trusted tech company, you will not face any stability issue if you have decided to use it.

Moreover, Go is considered as one of the most useful programming languages for DevOps management. Because it distinguishes with high performance, scalability, efficiency, and modularity e.g. things highly important for development operations.


C and C++ is one of the fastest and most powerful languages. It is often used for game development, and it is one of the most used programming languages overall.

With C/C++, memory management is simple and easy. This is why lots of popular software and games are built with it. The majority of the operating systems are built using it as well. Because of this, if you understand and can master C/C++, you will come to know much about operating systems and the fundamentals of how they work.


The R coding language is gaining popularity in recent years. This is because of interest growth in data analysis from several sectors. It provides a wide array of packages, and it is entirely open source. You might wish to learn R programming because of its cross-platform compatibility alone. The leading coding language to learn is one that works great on several platforms, so R is definitely worth your consideration.

top programming languages for cross-platform development

At this point, you know some of the best programming languages that have made an impact in 2020 and should continue to do so in 2021. You can even move ahead and get to know the developer’s average salary depending on programming language knowledge.

If you still hesitate what tech stack will work best for your solution, use our free quote on your project estimation. Our business analytics team with extensive expertise in software development for different industries find out the relevant tech match for your product.

Regardless, you decide to develop your product in-house or outsource it, always keep an eye on the promising technologies in development to ensure you will build a truly competitive product.

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